PLEASE DO NOT SUBMIT A BID IF YOU DO NOT HAVE EXPERIENCE WITH GRADUATE-LEVEL WRITING. MUST FOLLOW ALL INSTRUCTIONS MUST BE FOLLOWED, AND NO PLAGIARISM. USE ONLY SCHOLARLY SOURCES AND ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT.
The Topic of my Research Proposal Project that needs to be focused on is What can be done to help women rebuild trust after overcoming domestic violence?
Week 2 – Learning Activity
Topic: What can be done to help women rebuild trust after overcoming domestic violence?
Final Project Bibliography Checklist
Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read Chapter 5: Writing the Research Proposal and Chapter 8: Qualitative Research Methods from your textbook Practical Research: Planning and Design. Additionally, refer to the final project description for your Research Proposal Project in Week 6 to ensure that the articles you are selecting are appropriate for this final project.
Select five articles that you might be considering using in your final project Research Proposal Project. The articles should not be older than five years and must be scholarly, peer-reviewed articles. The Writing Center resource Choosing the Best Sources and Evidence (Links to an external site.) may be helpful when selecting your articles. Summarize the articles in one paragraph each, then refer to the Week 2 Checklist Download Week 2 Checklist, and complete checklist questions for each of the five articles.
Your submission must list the APA reference above each of the article summaries like you would see in an annotated bibliography. Here is a resource to demonstrate the layout of an Annotated Bibliography (Links to an external site.) :
The Final Project Bibliography Checklist learning activity will be submitted to a Canvas dropbox. The checklist must be two to three double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA Style (Links to an external site.) as outlined in the Writing Center’s APA Formatting for Microsoft Word (Links to an external site.) . The checklist must utilize Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) and two scholarly sources (see Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) for assistance). The scholarly sources need to be formatted in APA Style as outlined in the Writing Center’s APA: Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.) guide, and the separate references page should be formatted according to the APA: Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource.
Here are the five scholarly articles to use
1 Devakumar, D., Palfreyman, A., Uthayakumar-Cumarasamy, A., Ullah, N., Ranasinghe, C., Minckas, N., Nadkarni, A., Oram, S., Osrin, D., & Mannell, J. (2021). Mental health of women and children experiencing family violence in conflict settings: a mixed methods systematic review. Conflict & Health, 15(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-021-00410-4
2 Anderson, K. M., Renner, L. M., & Danis, F. S. (2012). Recovery: Resilience and Growth in the Aftermath of Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women, 18(11), 1279–1299. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801212470543
3 Flasch, P., Murray, C. E., & Crowe, A. (2017). Overcoming Abuse: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Journey to Recovery From Past Intimate Partner Violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32(22), 3373–3401. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515599161
4 Nicky Stanley, Pam Miller, Helen Richardson Foster, Gill Thomson, A Stop–Start Response: Social Services' Interventions with Children and Families Notified following Domestic Violence Incidents, The British Journal of Social Work, Volume 41, Issue 2, March 2011, Pages 296–313, https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcq071
5 Rachel Robbins, Kate Cook, ‘Don’t Even Get Us Started on Social Workers’: Domestic Violence, Social Work and Trust—An Anecdote from Research, The British Journal of Social Work, Volume 48, Issue 6, September 2018, Pages 1664–1681, https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcx125
Week 2 Checklist
Evaluating a Research Article 1. In what journal or other source did you find the article? Was it reviewed by experts in the field before it was published? That is, was the article in a Peer-reviewed publication? 2. Does the article have a stated research problem or question? That is, can you determine the focus of the author's work? 3. Does the article contain a section that describes and integrates previous studies on this topic? In what ways is this previous work relevant to the author's research problem or question? 4. If new data were collected, can you describe how they were collected and how they were analyzed? Do you agree with what was done? If you had been the researcher, what additional things might you have done? 5. Did the author explain procedures clearly enough that you could repeat the work and get similar results? What additional information might be helpful or essential for you to replicate the study? 6. Do you agree with the author's interpretations and conclusions? Why or why not? 7. Is the article logically organized and easy to follow? What could have been done to improve its organization and readability? 8. Finally, think about the entire article. What is, for you, most important? What do you find most interesting? What do you think are the strengths and weaknesses of this article? Will you remember this article in the future? Why or why not?
Leedy, P. D. & Ormrod, J. E. (2019). Practical research: Planning and design (12th ed.). Pearson.
· Chapter 5: Writing the Research Proposal
· Chapter 8: Qualitative Research Methods
· The full-text version of this ebook is available in your online classroom through the RedShelf platform. Chapter 5: Writing the Research Proposal provides the characteristics of a good research proposal and strategies for writing and revising your proposal, and Chapter 8 identifies situations for qualitative methodology, data collection strategies, and methods to evaluate and enhance credibility of data. Chapter 5: Writing the Research Proposal will assist you in your Prescriptive Approaches discussion forum, while both Chapter 5: Writing the Research Proposal and Chapter 8: Qualitative Research Methods will assist in your Qualitative Research and Needs Assessment quiz and Final Project Bibliography Checklist learning activity this week.
Netting, F. E., O’Conner, M. K., & Fauri, D. P. (2008). Comparative approaches to program planning . Wiley.
· Chapter 3: Rational Planning and Prescriptive Approaches
· The full-text version of this ebook is available in your online classroom through the RedShelf platform. Chapter 3 discusses rational planning and prescriptive approaches as both a decision and an activity process. The chapter also breaks down the dimensions of rational planning and prescriptive approaches into five categories: needs assessment, problem identification, intervention strategies, goals and objectives, and the decision-making behind program design. This chapter will assist you in your Prescriptive Approaches discussion forum this week.
CHOP Program Planning & Evaluation. (2011, October 31). Chapter 2: Conducting a community needs assessment: Part 1 (Links to an external site.) [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/624PSllFWsA
Merriam, S. B., & Grenier, R. S. (Eds.). (2019). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis (Links to an external site.) (2nd ed.). Jossey-Bass.
· Introduction to Qualitative Research
· The full-text version of this book is available through the Ebook Central database in the University of Arizona Global Campus Library. This book provides information about qualitative research methodology and may assist you in your Qualitative Research and Needs Assessment quiz and Final Project Bibliography Checklist learning activity this week.
Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers (Links to an external site.) . The Qualitative Report, 13 (4), 544–559. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR13-4/baxter.pdf
Heath, A. W. (1997). The proposal in qualitative research (Links to an external site.) . The Qualitative Report , 3 (1), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/1997.2026
Meyer, A. E., Reilly, E. E., Daniel, K. E., Hollon, S. D., Jensen-Doss, A., Mennin, D. S., Muroff, J., Schuler, T. A., White, B. A., & Teachman, B. A. (2020). Characterizing evidence-based practice and training resource barriers: A needs assessment (Links to an external site.) . Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 14 (3), 200–208. https://doi.org/10.1037/tep0000261
· The full-text version of this article is available through the APA PsycArticles database in the University of Arizona Global Campus Library. This article provides information about needs assessment and may assist you in your Qualitative Research and Needs Assessment quiz this week.
Rosetti, C. W., & Henderson, S.J. (2013). Lived experiences of adolescents with learning disabilities (Links to an external site.) . The Qualitative Report, 18 (24), 1–17. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR18/rosetti47.pdf
· This article provides information about qualitative research and will assist you in your Qualitative Research and Needs Assessment quiz and Final Project Bibliography Checklist learning activity this week.
University of Arizona Global Campus Library. (n.d.). Literature review research (Links to an external site.) [Video]. https://content.bridgepointeducation.com/curriculum/file/adf48716-2d1a-4a72-a1d0-f7f1c7fc2279/1/Literature%20Review%20Research.zip/story_html5.html
· This video provides information about qualitative research methodology and may assist you in your Qualitative Research and Needs Assessment quiz and Final Project Bibliography Checklist learning activity this week.
A Stop – Start Response: Social Services’ Interventions with Children and Families Notified following Domestic Violence Incidents
Nicky Stanley *, Pam Miller, Helen Richardson Foster, and Gill Thomson
Nicky Stanley is Professor of Social Work at the University of Central Lancashire. She managed the research study described in this paper and is currently undertaking research on services for
male perpetrators of domestic violence as well as leading on the national evaluation of social work practices. She is co-editor of Child Abuse Review and has published books on such issues as domestic violence and child protection, mothers’ mental health needs and inquiries in health and social care. Pam Miller, MSSW, was a Research Fellow on the project, ‘Children and families experiencing domestic violence: Police and children’s services responses’. Pam is
currently a Research Officer at the NSPCC and is undertaking research into services in London for children and young people who live with domestic violence. Helen Richardson Foster, MSc, was a Research Fellow on the project, ‘Children and families experiencing
domestic violence: Police and children’s services responses’. Helen is currently a freelance social researcher and her research interests include domestic violence, parenting and work
with vulnerable children and young people. Dr Gill Thomson is a Research Associate who works within the Maternal and Infant Nutrition and Nurture Unit at the University of Central Lancashire. Gill was employed on the study reported here for approximately ten months and
was primarily involved in the collection and analysis of the police data. Gill’s current research projects relate to socio-cultural influences of women’s experiences of maternity care and infant
*Correspondence to Professor Nicky Stanley, School of Social Work, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE. E-mail: [email protected]
The harm consequent on children’s exposure to domestic violence is recognised in legis-
lation in England and Wales. This paper reports on a study of the social work response to
184 families notified by the police to children’s services in two English authorities.
Families were tracked through case records over 21 months subsequent to the notifica-
tion. The perspectives of social services’ practitioners and managers were also captured
through interviews. Only a small proportion of families received a service in the form of
an initial assessment or further intervention; the notification triggered a service for just
five per cent of families. Families who received a warning letter only were just as likely to
# The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of
The British Association of Social Workers. All rights reserved.
British Journal of Social Work (2011) 41, 296–313 doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcq071 Advance Access publication June 19, 2010
be re-referred as those who met with no response. Those families receiving a service
were likely to experience repeated notifications and assessments. The limited time
period for completing assessments contributed to initial assessment workers’ lack of
engagement with perpetrators of domestic violence. Current structures for assessment
and intervention contribute to a stop-start pattern of social work that seems ill-suited
to building the trust and engagement needed to challenge the complex and enduring
experience of domestic violence.
Keywords: children, domestic violence, social services, interventions
Accepted: May 2010
In England and Wales, the 2002 Adoption and Children Act identified ‘impairment suffered from seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another’ (s. 120) as a form of significant harm. This inclusion of children’s experience of domestic violence within the category of child abuse owed much to the accumulating body of evidence on the impact of domestic violence on chil- dren. Such research has included accounts of mothers and children (McGee, 2000; Mullender et al., 2002; Buckley et al., 2007) and reviews detailing the impact of exposure to domestic violence on children (Cleaver et al., 1999; Edleson, 1999; Holt et al., 2008). The legislation crys- tallised the shift from a conceptualisation of domestic violence as an adults’ issue to a view that children were intimately involved in the problem. However, it also had the effect of drawing a new and potentially vast group of children and families into the auspices of children’s social services.
In the 1980s and 1990s, statutory social work in the UK was much criti- cised for its failure to acknowledge the presence and impact of domestic violence in families (Farmer and Owen, 1995; Stanley, 1997). As social work has become more sensitised to the issue, criticisms have moved to focus on the nature of the response. International research has explored key questions such as what priority is allocated to domestic violence (Irwin and Waugh, 2007; English et al., 2005; Devaney, 2008) and whether the social work response to domestic violence is able to balance the needs of children with those of victims and perpetrators (Humphreys, 2007). The extent to which children’s social services work collaboratively with other key agencies operating in this field, especially third-sector dom- estic violence services, has also been explored (Banks et al., 2008; Cleaver et al., 2007).
These concerns link to wider discussions about social work’s capacity and readiness to engage with men and fathers (Scourfield, 2003; Featherstone, 2009). Domestic violence provides the focus for some of these debates, as a failure to engage with male perpetrators who are also fathers appears
A Stop – Start Response 297
to leave social workers in the difficult-to-defend position of demanding that mothers who are the victims of abuse protect their children from exposure to that experience (Lapierre, 2008). The study reported here provided the opportunity to examine social work practice in England in relation to families experiencing domestic violence and to explore some of these issues.
This study was undertaken between 2007 and 2009 and utilised two research sites in north and south England that were well matched in terms of the size of the children’s population. While one was a metropolitan area with a very diverse population, the other contained a mixture of urban and rural areas with ethnic diversity concentrated in the towns.
The main stage of the research constituted a study of professional prac- tice that included retrospective analysis of agency records and interviews with practitioners and managers. Cases were originally identified as dom- estic violence incidents in police records and were tracked through to social services’ case files. Findings regarding police practice and inter- agency work between police and children’s social services are reported else- where (Stanley et al., 2010); this paper focuses on children’s social services’ response to notifications. The sample was created by selecting all incidents of domestic violence notified by the police in January 2007. This allowed follow-up of children and families in social services’ records over a period of twenty-one months following the original notification.
Identifying markers assigned to police records were used to locate files on notified cases in children’s services’ records. However, in common with similar research studies (Beeman et al., 2001), the researchers experienced difficulty in matching up police and social services records and the original sample of 251 domestic violence incidents was reduced to a total of 184 families who, between them, had 196 reported incidents (some had more than one incident) for January 2007. This process of attrition can be attrib- uted to a number of factors, including multiple notifications, files being lost or unavailable and the likelihood that some notifications were never received.
As only a small proportion of the notified cases received a service com- prising an assessment or intervention, the number of cases in which it was possible to examine social work interventions in depth was reduced to twenty-eight. In order to increase the sample size at this stage of analysis, a booster sample was constructed of notified cases from February 2007 that received an initial assessment or further intervention. This increased the total number of cases receiving a substantial social work intervention to forty-six, facilitating examination of sub-groups.
298 Nicky Stanley et al.
Since case records only convey what is recorded and since practice in our two sites in relation to notifications had developed between 2007 and 2008, a series of semi-structured interviews was completed with twenty-five social workers, administrative staff and managers who volunteered to be inter- viewed in both sites, asking them about information contained in notifica- tions, systems for managing notifications and their practice in relation to families experiencing domestic violence. Interviews were recorded with the participants’ agreement and informed consent procedures were adopted. Ethical approval for the study was given by the University of Central Lancashire’s Ethics Committee.
Other stages of the research included a survey of innovative practice in relation to the management of notifications of domestic violence incidents in England and Wales and interviews with young people, survivors and per- petrators of domestic violence. Participants were recruited separately through relevant services so they had no relationship with one another. Nineteen young people aged ten to nineteen participated in five focus groups held in settings in which they were familiar with discussing domestic violence in a group. Eleven survivors of domestic violence who were parents were contacted through specialist domestic violence services and interviewed individually, as were ten perpetrators (all fathers) recruited from both voluntary and mandated perpetrator programmes. These inter- views aimed to capture perceptions of domestic violence and its impact on children and young people as well as expectations and experiences of services. Some of these data are reported here to reinforce the findings on professional practice.
The analysis of file data entailed entering anonymised data into prede- signed data collection forms and from there into spreadsheets. Quantitative data were coded and analysed using SPSS. Qualitative data were extracted from the spreadsheets and thematically analysed; case vignettes that allowed interventions to be mapped across the follow-up period were also developed. All interviews were transcribed and NVivo was used to sort the data for analysis. Themes were identified both in accordance with the existing literature and as they arose from the data using Grounded Theory principles (Strauss and Corbin, 1990; Charmaz, 2006) with cat- egories being double-checked and refined in the course of analysis.
Findings Sample characteristics
The sample of 184 notified families located in social services files included 333 children of whom slightly over half (51 per cent) were aged under five. Police records noted the ethnic appearance of 277 children: 77 per cent were described as white European; 5 per cent dark European; 13 per cent
A Stop – Start Response 299
Black African; 5 per cent Asian; and less than 1 per cent Arab. Police records for the 196 incidents did not record or were unclear about where- abouts for 25 per cent of the potential child witnesses. Forty-five per cent of children were recorded as directly witnessing the violence in these inci- dents; 5 per cent were not at home at the time. Although police records did not always distinguish a single perpetrator, the majority (93 per cent) of identified perpetrators were men. Fifty-three per cent of the adults involved in incidents were identified as ex-partners, while 47 per cent were described as current partners. For the majority of children (62 per cent, n ¼ 208), both the adults involved in the incident were their birth parents.
Cleaver et al. (1999) emphasise that the risks for children are highest when domestic violence occurs in the context of other problems. Table 1 shows that seventy-five identified perpetrators (four of whom were women) were described by the police at the incident as being drunk or having been drinking or had a self-identified alcohol problem. Similarly, thirty-seven victims were identified as having alcohol problems and this is consistent with the considerable body of evidence highlighting the role of alcohol as a contributory factor in domestic violence incidents (Gilchrist et al., 2003; Galvani, 2004). Fourteen perpetrators and one victim were identified by the police as having a drug problem. Fourteen perpetrators and nine victims were described as having a mental health problem by either their partners or themselves.
Among those families receiving a service, one parent was recorded as having a learning disability and in two families, a child was identified as having a learning disability. Physical health issues were found to affect two parents and seven children in families receiving a service. Families where the child or parent had learning disabilities or physical health issues were over-represented in the cases receiving family support or safe- guarding services but this might have been a reflection of the fact that more was known about families that received a service.
The vast majority (86 per cent) of incidents took place at the victim’s home, emphasising the fact that domestic violence occurs in the place where children should expect to feel safe. The range of incidents was wide, with the researchers using the information contained in police records to classify 54 per cent as low-level or purely verbal incidents, 20 per cent as medium-level incidents that involved verbal abuse with some physical abuse but without any injuries being sustained and 26 per cent as high-level incidents involving a high level of violence or a verbal argument with threats to kill. Injuries were inflicted on adults in 30 per cent of the incidents; children were injured in three incidents.
The notification forms received by children’s services contained rela- tively little information about the extent of children’s involvement in the incidents. However, the original police records revealed more about the context and it was clear that children were intimately involved in many of the incidents. Thirty-six incidents occurred after a former partner was
300 Nicky Stanley et al.
denied access to the house or children (usually because he had been drink- ing) and sought to enter the home by violent means. Twenty-six incidents occurred in the context of contact visits or handovers and fifteen incidents appeared to be related to arguments about parenting or disciplining the children. Children made the call to the police on nine occasions.
No further action cases
File data from the 184 cases were analysed to determine the service pathway cases followed in the first instance. As Table 2 shows, 60 per cent of cases resulted in ‘no further action’. Three-quarters of these ‘no further action’ cases had no or low (i.e. previous notifications or referrals that had been closed on receipt with no further action) previous levels of involvement with children’s social services in that authority. This contrasted with the finding that nineteen of the twenty-eight cases that received a family support or safe- guarding assessment or intervention were already open cases. The pattern was therefore one by which families most likely to receive a service were those with whom children’s services were already involved. Notifications triggered a new service for only 5 per cent of the sample.
The failure of so many of these notified cases to reach children’s services’ threshold for intervention was attributed by social workers to the low level of seriousness of the incidents and 60 per cent of the cases following a ‘no further action pathway’ were classified by the researchers as verbal alterca- tions only. However, 55 per cent of the cases in the sample in which an adult
Table 1 Victims’ and perp
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