use the triangle model of social analysis by thinking through the role of ideology and institutions and their impact on individuals and communities.
Global Citizenship: FROM SOCIAL ANALYSIS TO SOCIAL ACTION (GNED 500)
Centennial College is proud to be a part of a rich history of education in this province and in this city. We acknowledge that we are on the treaty lands and territory of the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation and pay tribute to their legacy and the legacy of all First Peoples of Canada, as we strengthen ties with the communities we serve and build the future through learning and through our graduates.
Today, the traditional meeting place of Toronto is still home to many In- digenous People f rom across Turtle Island and we are grateful to have the opportunity to work in the communities that have grown in the trea- ty lands of the Mississaugas. We acknowledge that we are all treaty peo- ple and accept our responsibility to honour all our relations.
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Statement of Diversity
Centennial College and its Board of Governors value and embrace diversity, equity and inclusion as fundamental to our mission to educate students for career success within a context of global citizenship and social justice.
We recognize that historical and persistent inequities and barriers to equitable partic- ipation exist and are well documented in society and within the college.
We believe individual and systemic biases contribute to the marginalization of des- ignated groups. These biases include race, sex, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, ancestry, nationality, place of origin, colour, ethnicity, culture, linguistic origin, citizenship, creed (religion, faith), marital status, socio-economic class, family status, receipt of public assistance or record of offence. We acknowledge that resolving First Nations sovereignty issues is fundamental to pursuing equity and social justice within Canada.
We acknowledge the richness and diversity of the community we serve. As our com- munity has evolved, and our staff and student population have changed, we have im- plemented policies and practices to address issues of inclusion. In moving forward, we will build on this work to embed commitment to diversity, equity and inclusion in every aspect of what we do.
Our Guiding Principles
We believe social justice requires that we value diversity, equity and inclusion. We believe that the principles and practices of diversity, equity and inclusion strengthen the social and economic development, growth and well-being of our student population, our em- ployees, and our local and international communities.
We uphold our social responsibility to contribute to a society that is equitable, fair and just. In accordance with our mission, vision and values, we will demonstrate leadership in eliminating barriers, and implementing and promoting diversity through our Academic Framework, policies, special initiatives and proactive measures.
We are committed to eliminating all forms of harassment and discrimination. We will prevent, remedy and redress these inequities. We will create an environment of inclusion in teaching, learning, employment and support services so we can fully serve our com- munities and prepare students to excel in the workplace and in society.
We will be accountable for the changes we need to make. We will continue to comply with existing federal and provincial legislative requirements. We will continue to develop and implement goals, policies, competencies and special initiatives founded upon prin- ciples of social justice to promote equity and inclusion. We will collect data to track prog- ress and regularly evaluate the effectiveness of the initiatives we undertake, and we will communicate the outcomes to our community.
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A safe, secure, inclusive and accessible environment for learning, teaching and working
Centennial College will be free from discrimination, harassment and hate. We will fully sup- port the right of everyone to study, participate and work with dignity in an environment of mutual respect. We will include and respect the abilities, experiences, perspectives and con- tributions of our students, our employees, our partners and our communities.
Curriculum and instruction that reflect diversity and promote equity and inclusion
Our curriculum and instruction will draw on a variety of knowledge, perspectives and ex- periences. Our teaching and learning will help students recognize different forms of dis- crimination and understand the factors that cause inequity in society. Through our com- mitment to global citizenship and social justice, we will prepare students with the skills and knowledge to challenge unjust practices and build positive human relationships in an increasingly diverse society.
Equitable and accessible opportunities for student success
We will identify and remove institutional barriers that prevent access and impede stu- dent success. Our teaching and support services will demonstrate equity and inclusion. We will provide transformative and inclusive curriculum that will help students attain academic excellence and positive social and career outcomes.
Building knowledge and evaluating effectiveness
We will ensure we are knowledgeable about diversity, equity and inclusion. We will criti- cally analyze and research current practices. We will evaluate our effectiveness by tracking our progress, analyzing what is working well and determining how we can best improve.
Human Resource Management systems, policies and practices that reflect diversity and promote equity and inclusion
We will implement bias- and barrier-f ree recruitment, selection, hiring and promotion at all levels. We will ensure that our employees’ skills and knowledge are respected, valued and used appropriately. We will provide equitable opportunities for professional develop- ment and advancement for all employees.
Training and staff development in equity and diversity
We will provide ongoing training and staff development to build understanding and en- sure that equity and inclusion are central to the work we do. We will recognize and reward initiatives that support diversity, equity and inclusion.
Accessible and inclusive college communication
We will reflect diversity in communications that promote Centennial College, our pro- grams, services and curriculum. We will ensure that college communication is respectful, and that our information is accessible and widely available.
A B O U T
Except where otherwise noted within the work, Global Citizenship: From Social Analysis to Social Action (2021) by Centennial College, Kritee Ahmed, Paula Anderton, Selom Chapman-Nyaho, Sein Kipusi, Athanasios Tom Kokkinias, Sabrina Malik, Meera Mather, Kisha McPherson, Soudeh Oladi, Chet Singh is licensed under a Creative Commons At- tribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). You can read about the terms of the license here: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
Any content not licensed under a Creative Commons open license should be assumed to be All Rights Reserved and may require permission f rom the copyright owner for further uses.
Material included in this text that is not be covered by an open license:
• Photo by Cultural Survival in the module “Social Action for Social Change,” used with permission.
• Photo by Cultural Survival and Indigenous Media Caucus in the module “Critical Media Literacy,” used with permission.
• Google Search Result Screen Capture in the module “Social Media and Disinforma- tion,” used with permission.
• Third-party weblinks and linked online video. Check the source for copyright re- strictions for any other use.
Cover Design by Anna Rasti is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 International License.
Strategic engagement with diverse communities
We will undertake strategic outreach to develop meaningful relationships with diverse communities. We will engage with these communities and encourage their fullest con- tribution to, and participation in, our activities and consultations.
Relationships and partnerships that align with our mission, vision and values
We will actively seek relationships that enhance our values and offer domestic and in- ternational opportunities to prepare our students to work effectively and successfully in a global and diverse marketplace. We will ensure that our contractual relationships with businesses and organizations comply with our standards of equity, human rights and fairness.
Committing financial and human resources to promote diversity, equity and inclusion
We will provide resources to support the work of our employees, our students and our partners in promoting diversity, equity and inclusion.
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Kritee Ahmed Kritee Ahmed is a professor in the Department of Humanities and Social Sci- ences and has regularly taught GNED 500. He has contributed to the OER text- book and participated in course revisions.
Selom Chapman-Nyaho Selom Chapman-Nyaho is a professor in the department of Humanities and Social Sciences and Liberal Arts and has contributed to several versions of the GNED 500 textbook and online course. He is also an instructor in the depart- ments of Criminology and Sociology at York University.
Athanasios Tom Kokkinias Athanasios Tom Kokkinias is a professor in the department of Humanities and Social Sciences. Tom has been teaching GNED 500: Global Citizenship since 2008, alongside various philosophy courses. He has also contributed to several editions of the GNED 500 textbook and helped develop the online version of the course.
Paula Anderton Paula Anderton is a professor in the department of Humanities and Social Sci- ences and the GNED 500 coordinator. She was the OER project lead and a contributor to both the previous and current textbook and course revisions.
Sein Kipusi Sein Kipusi is a professor in the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences and has regularly taught GNED 500. She is also a lecturer at the University of Toronto in the department of Social Justice in Education.
Sabrina Malik Sabrina Malik is a professor in the department of Humanities and Social Sci- ences, where she teaches GNED 500 and other courses in the social sciences. She contributed to the previous edition of the GNED 500 textbook, as well as the current GNED 500 OER and course revisions.
A B O U T
Meera Mather Meera Mather is the Chair of the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences and oversees the curriculum and delivery of the Global Citizenship (GNED 500) course. She is involved in the GNED 500 comprehensive review and ongoing curriculum modifications. Meera has initiated and led the past and current iter- ation of the GNED 500 textbook.
Kisha McPherson Kisha McPherson is a professor in the department of Humanities and So- cial Sciences and Liberal Arts and has contributed to several versions of the GNED 500 textbook and course.
Soudeh Oladi Soudeh Oladi is a professor in the department of Humanities and Social Sci- ences and she contributed to the GNED 500 OER textbook. She is also an instructor and researcher at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto.
Chet Singh Chet Singh developed the initial curriculum f ramework for the GNED 500 course and has been involved in updating several editions of the course text- book. He has contributed to numerous social action initiatives to bring about systemic change in the education system and larger society.
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Matthew Maaskant Matthew Maaskant is a graphic designer for print & web who’s company is called Maaskant Media Productions. He designed the overall look for the GNED 500 OER textbook and created the pdf version of the course.
Shelby Stinnissen Shelby Stinnissen is the Copyright Services Librarian at Centennial College Li- braries. Shelby provided support for copyright compliance, permissions, open licensing and attribution for this edition of the GNED 500 open textbook.
Kathryn Willms Kathryn Willms is an editor and writer who specializes in educational work. Her company is called Kwill Communications. She edited the GNED 500 OER textbook.
Support Team Bios
A B O U T
Support Team Bios
Elena Escalada Barroso Upon graduating with master’s degrees in neuroscience and psychology, Elena Escalada worked as a child psychologist for more than ten years in Spain before moving in 2014 to Toronto. After becoming a mom two years ago, Elena decided to switch careers to her true passion—graphic design.
Zia Foley Zia Foley is an emerging mixed media artist based in Toronto. Having lived abroad for many years, her artwork is influenced by a wide range of cul- tures. She has exhibited her artwork in Turkey and Canada, and won first place in the drawing category for CICan’s 2020 Student Contest.
Linh Le Linh Le is a graphic design student at Centennial College and an aspir- ing illustrator/ graphic designer based in Toronto. Her fascination for the Japanese art culture reflects in the style and subjects of her works, and it inspires her to pursue her interest in game design. She enjoys collecting pieces of concept designs, character designs and environment designs f rom different animated films and games.
Phoenix Mounce Phoenix Mounce is currently a third-year student studying graphic design at Centennial College, residing in Toronto. She aspires to be a professional illustrator and graphic designer, specializing in music branding, merchan- dise, logo, and package design. She is very fond of coffee and loves collect- ing vinyl records.
Tuncel Mustafa Tuncel Mustafais an emerging artist with a focus on realistic painting and drawing and a passion for landscape painting. She has participated in Cen- tennial College exhibitions at the Story Arts Centre, Corridor Gallery, Closet Gallery, and the Scarborough Hero Award Project. External shows include Artist Network Gallery, Art Fair, and Radio Perfect commissioned work.
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Ankita Nema Ankita Nema is a visual artist with a number of successful art exhibitions around the Greater Toronto area. As an illustrator, she has published an eBook on Amazon.com. She likes to experiment with various art mediums such as pencils, pastels, charcoals, oils, watercolors, and acrylics on canvas.
Anna Rasti Anna Rasti is a second-year Graphic Design student at Centennial College with a passion for illustration and editorial design. She has spent most of her life designing and creating, which led her to Architecture school in her home country of Iran, where she graduated f rom the program.
Kenneth Reaume Kenneth Reaume is a graphic designer and illustrator f rom Scarborough, Ontario. His designs and illustrations were honored with the Peter Dick- inson Award as well as being showcased in Centennial College’s student artwork competition for the 2021-25 Renewed Academic Plan. He was also nominated for a JUNO Award for album artwork and design.
Aleksandra Rodneva Since childhood, Aleksandra has had a passion for creating visual images. Back in her hometown Vladikavkaz in Russia, she studied at the S. D. Tav- asiev Municipal Children’s Art school. In 2017, Aleksandra moved to Canada, enrolled in Art and Design fundamentals and then Fine arts Studio courses at Centennial College, where she kept looking for new things to use for vi- sualizing her ideas.
Sidia Atabales-Schnitzler Sidia Atabales-Schnitzler is an emerging artist who lives and works in To- ronto, Ontario. Although her roots are in drawing and painting, she also explores antique photographic methods, such as cyanotypes.
Anna Zabashta Anna Zabashta is a student in the Fine Arts Program at Centennial College, where she is learning about art and participating in art communities. Her favourite media are watercolour and acrylic. Anna’s other artistic interests include abstract painting and digital art.
A B O U T
As the world becomes smaller, our role in it—and the role of our students—must become larger. To this end, we will strive to become an internationally recognized leader in education that places a strong emphasis on global citizenship, social justice, and equity.
– Centennial College’s Book of Commitments*
As globalization has expanded and increased, the level of interconnectedness among people and countries has led to broad concerns about the issue of citizenship. It has now become incumbent upon post-secondary institutions to educate and provide tools for students to become responsible global citizens. As Martha Nussbaum (1997) sug- gests, colleges are not just producing students; they are also producing citizens, and as such, “we must ask what a good citizen of the present day should be and should know” (p. 8). This was the very statement that Centennial College was encouraged to explore in 2004. The dialogue began within the college community and resulted in the develop- ment of the Signature Learning Experience (SLE), focusing on global citizenship, equity, and inclusion. The SLE came to be incorporated into all areas of academic and college life. Today, Centennial College continues to effectively cultivate global citizenship and Indigenous principles within the college leadership and culture and has established itself as an activist college.
At Centennial, our administrators, faculty, and staff are committed to educating our students to achieve a broader understanding of the social issues that challenge us in the 21st century, including “human rights/equity, peace/justice, environment/energy/technol- ogy and poverty” (Singh, 2008, p. xi). Learning about issues such as injustice, power and diversity—about the globalized world in which we live—is a necessity because students will inevitably be conf ronted with these issues and will be required to think critically in their personal and professional lives. This is reinforced in Centennial’s vision of “trans- forming lives and communities through learning.” The college recognizes the value in engaging in decolonizing educational systems and structures (Book of Commitments, 2019–2024). Hence, every student in the college participates in the SLE.
One of the key initiatives of the SLE is our college-mandated General Education course titled Global Citizenship: From Social Analysis to Social Action (GNED 500) for which this textbook is written. This course provides students with the skills, knowledge and educa- tion that will allow them to achieve a greater global consciousness and to strive towards change. Employers seek graduates with an understanding of global issues that contrib- ute to their leadership and interpersonal skills. In response to employer need, Centennial College has created conditions of inclusion in our classrooms, so that students can be- come well-rounded global citizens.
Meera Mather and Kisha McPherson
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Preface in Global Citizenship: From Social Analysis to Social Action (2021) by Centenni- al College, Meera Mather and Kisha McPherson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) unless otherwise stated.
This preface is an adaptation of the “Preface,” by Meera Mather, in Global Citizenship: From Social Analysis to Social Action © 2015 by Centennial College.
Centennial College. (2019). Our book of commitments (3rd ed.). https://www.centennial- college.ca/about-centennial/corporate-information/publications/book-of-commitments/
Global Education First Initiative. (2015, September 23). Global citizenship education [Vid- eo]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPdtGrnj7sU
Nussbaum, M. C. (1997). Cultivating humanity: A classical defense of reform in liberal education. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Singh, C. (2008). Introduction: Becoming socially literate. In Centennial College, Global citizenship: From social analysis to social action (2nd ed., p. xii). Toronto: Pearson Cus- tom Publishing.
Introduction MEERA MATHER AND KISHA MCPHERSON
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Citizenship in a Global World
You have to take ownership and leadership of tomorrow. For that to be possible, you have to strengthen your capacity and widen your vision as a global citizen.
– Ban Ki-moon (former Secretary-General of the United Nations)
Can you imagine a world where everyone is aware of and concerned about issues like the environment, poverty, and how policies affect people’s lives? The concept of global citi- zenship was created by imagining such a world. This module introduces the foundational concepts of this e-textbook: global citizenship and social action.
Image by Pixabay on Pexels
Watch this video to learn more about the purpose and benefits of global citizenship education. The narrator starts by asking some questions that highlight how teaching global citizenship can help to address key concerns in the world. (Source: Global Educa- tion First Initiative, 2015)
h t t p s : //w w w.y o u t u b e . c o m /w a t c h? v = t P d t G r n j 7s U
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Introduction to Global Citizenship
Citizenship refers to membership and partici- pation in a specific community. The term “citi- zenship” has both legal and social meanings. In a legal sense, it refers to the status of a person who lives in a particular country. As a member of a country, a citizen is given a set of rights and privileges and accepts certain responsibilities. For example, a Canadian citizen is expected to obey laws and pay taxes. In return, Canada pro- vides its citizens with rights such as f reedom of speech and the right to vote, among other things (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2012). In a social sense, citizenship refers to par- ticipation in a community. Citizens fulfill and debate their rights and responsibilities (Cen- tennial College, 2009).
Global Citizenship is a concept that rec- ognizes the interconnectedness of people f rom diverse societies across the globe. It em- phasizes that we are all part of a global com-
munity and can share values, beliefs, ideas, voices, resources, and practices. We are not only citizens of a nation; we are also citizens of the world. As citizens of a nation, we attempt to work collec- tively to improve our country. However, as global citizens, it is essential that we work to better the lives of people across the world.
Artwork by Kenneth Reaume is licensed under a
CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 International License.
Do you believe that everyone around the world can participate in global citizenship? Can a person living in poverty be a global citizen as effectively as a wealthy person?
Global Citizenship: A concept based on social justice principles and practices that seeks to build global interconnectedness and shared economic, environmental, and social responsibility.
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Watch this video to learn the story of Viola Desmond, an entrepreneur who challenged segregation in Nova Scotia in the 1940s. (Source: Historica Canada, 2016)
h t t p s : //w w w.y o u t u b e . c o m /w a t c h? v = i e 0 x W Y R S X 7 Y
Viola Desmond was a Canadian citizen who was denied her right to participate fully in Canadian society based on her race. She took a stand against racial injustice. Desmond fought for her rights as a national citizen, but she was also acting on the principles of global citizenship by fighting against the worldwide problem of racial inequality.
Historical Context for Global Citizenship
In the world of our early human ancestors, social circles were small. Knowl- edge was either passed down f rom elders or expe- rienced first-hand. Com- pare that to society today where we live in commu- nities of millions and have access to knowledge far beyond that of our elders. Contact with the rest of the world is literally at our fingertips, accessible within seconds (Global Citizenship, 2015, p.6).
The term “global citizenship” was traditionally associated with the concept “cos- mopolitism”. The word cosmopolitan means “world citizen” (Global Citizenship, 2015). We can recognize ourselves as world citizens by thinking about the spread of online technol- ogy across the world. Today, we can connect with people around the globe. This creates international communities where individuals develop a sense of belonging. This has also strengthened our ties to other countries. The use of technology is increasing our individ- ual and collective global economic activ- ities, and access to information expands our awareness of inequalities in our world (Israel, 2013). For example, during the global pandemic of COVID-19, infor- mation was shared across nations, and countries collaborated to share resourc- es and to find effective resolutions.
Image by geralt on Pixabay.
cosmopolitan: Belonging to all the world; not limited to just one part of the world. To be f ree f rom local, provincial, or national ideas, prejudices, or attachments.
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GO DEEPER For more insight into the historical role industrialized countries have played in climate change, and the challenges faced by the global community in fixing this problem as it evolves, read this blog post. (Source: Ritchie, 2019)
h t t p s : //o u r w o r l d i n d a t a . o r g /c o n t r i b u t e d – m o s t – g l o b a l – c o 2
Throughout this e-textbook, we will be critically thinking and questioning how to ap- ply the concept of global citizenship. The concept of global citizenship can provide the modern world with much-needed critical and ethical perspectives. These will allow us to stay globally connected and contribute to achieving fairness and justice for all people. To think globally also means to act locally. Global, social justice consciousness starts at home, with an honest examination of how our own society treats its citizens. See the fol- lowing video for an example.
This video outlines and explains some key perspectives and concerns related to the Dakota Access pipeline, which has created tensions between the US government and Indigenous communities across North America. (Source: Vox, 2016)
h t t p s : //w w w.y o u t u b e . c o m /w a t c h? v = q J Z 1 – L A F O To
silos: To separate something or someone f rom other things or people.
History has taught us that a country and its citizens cannot exist in silos. We must be concerned, connected, and engaged with the rest of the world. Climate change provides an example. Pollutants from the industrialized West and Asia are destroying farmland in sub-Saharan Africa. Rising sea levels are flooding Bangladesh. The poorest countries are facing the worst consequences of the ac- tions of the richest countries. What we do and the choices we make have a wide impact.
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Considering Canada’s responsibilities to its citizens, includ- ing voting privileges, safety, and ensuring people’s basic well-being, have our laws and policies always ensured these rights for Indigenous people across the country?
Why Study Global Citizenship
Global citizenship has never been more relevant in our diverse society. The study of global citizenship creates critical think- ers. It encourages the ability to see and ap- ply multiple perspectives when assessing events and trends. It also helps develop big-picture thinking. This can help us bet- ter understand why current events happen and what their results might be.
For instance, in 2008, the Canadian gov- ernment apologized for the great damage government policies had done to Indige- nous Peoples in Canada. To start the pro- cess of healing, the government created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). The TRC travelled the country to re- cord the injustices experienced by Indig- enous Peoples (Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, n.d.).
At the end of this process, the TRC wrote a report. In it, 94 “Calls to Action” were listed. One of the Calls to Action is to acknowledge that we live on Indige- nous Peoples’ lands. The study of global citizenship encourages us to think beyond what is presented to us. In this case, let’s use big-picture thinking.
Do you think this acknowledgement is enough to make up for centuries of abusive policies and actions by the government?
big-picture thinking: to think about issues f rom a broader perspective, considering multiple views and resources.
Artwork by Kenneth Reaume is licensed under a CC
BY-NC-SA 4.0 International License.
I N T R O D U C T I O N
GO DEEPER This video depicts a land acknowledgment that takes place at a theatre and the reaction of one of the audience members. Using the form of comedy, this video asks a critical question about our responsibilities as citizens and residents of Canada.
It also demonstrates how studying global citizenship builds the knowledge and skills required to work towards more equal and just societies. (Source: CBC Comedy, 2019)
h t t p s : //w w w.y o u t u b e . c o m /w a t c h? v = x l G 1 7 C 1 9 n Yo
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Global Citizenship in Context
Becoming a global citizen requires active engagement with the tools and skills outlined below.
Graphic by Kisha McPherson and Meera Mather, Centennial College is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 International
In this course, you will learn and ap- ply these skills and tools in the context of global citizenship. These skills will also serve you in the workplace. Cana- dian employers want employees who can resolve conflict at the earliest stage. They are also looking for people who can think critically, communicate effective- ly, and engage successfully with a wide range of people (Bourn, 2009).
Image by geralt on Pixabay
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Developing interpersonal skills will help you both at work and in personal relation- ships. In the Global Citizenship course, you will build interpersonal skills through group work that requires both critical thinking and social analysis.
As you move through this course, you will examine and reflect on the following questions: What does being a global citizen mean to you? What are different ways of thinking about the concept of global citizenship? And what are the pros and cons of global citizenship?
GNED 500 Course (Global Citizenship: From Social Analysis to Social Action)
This e-textbook is a resource for the GNED 500 course, Global Citizenship: From Social
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